What is a Seed?


What is a Seed ?

Seeds are the result of male pollen from a plant uniting with the female egg. This action produces a seed, which is made up of three parts: the outer seed coat, which protects the seed; the endosperm, which provides food for the embryo; and the embryo itself, which is a young plant. Seeds are identified with sexual reproduction.

What is a Seed?: The beginnings of a plant.

What is Germination?

What is Germination ?

Germination is the growth of a plant embryo into a seedling. Seeds are created when the pollen of the male flower unites with the egg from the female flower. When the seed matures, and is put in an environment that is favorable (like soil), the embryo will begin growing rapidly and will burst through the seed coating. The first part of a seed to emerge is called a radicle. This will develop into the primary root of the plant.

What is Germination?: The way plants reproduce sexually.

Categories of Seed

Categories of Seed

Breeder Seed: Breeder seed is seed or vegetative propagating material produced by or under the direct control of the sponsoring plant breeder. It is the basis of the first and recurring increase of foundation seed.

Foundation Seed: It is obtained from breeder seed by direct increase and is the source of registered and or certified seed. Foundation seed is produced on experimental stations of Agricultural Universities and Government forms.

Certified Seeds: Certified seed is produced from foundation or registered seed. It is so known because it is certified by a seed certifying agency. The certified seed is annually produced by progressive farmers according to standard seed production practices. Certified seed is available for general distribution to farmers for commercial crop production.

Public Hybrid: The hybrids developed by Govt. agencies or Govt. Institutions and Agricultural Universities are called public hybrids.

F1 Hybrid: The resultant seed obtained from crossing of two genetically dissimilar parents is called F1 Hybrids.

Types of Seed

Types of Seed

Local Varieties: Local varieties are nothing but traditional varieties but which are susceptible to diseases and pests and are having long duration for maturity. In case of rice – Krishnakatukalu, Basangulu.

High Yielding Varieties: High yielding varieties are dwarf varieties and having short duration with resistant to pests and diseases with maximum yield potential. Eg: I.R -64, I.R – 36, I.R – 50.


  • A systematic and extensive evaluation of the experimental hybrids, across the country, at the twelve research net work centers has been taken up. About eight hundred experimental hybrids have been evaluated so far. During the wet season ( Kharif), the experimental hybrids are being evaluated at 12 centers, where as during dry season ( rabi ) the experimental hybrids are evaluated in seven centers, located in southern, western and eastern India. Very useful information on performance of hybrids and data on yield and yield components and other auxiliary characters of hybrids across the locations and seasons has been collected over the years.
  • As a result of concerted, goal oriented, time bound and co-ordinated efforts for the first time in the country, four rice hybrids were released for commercial cultivation during 1994, by the state variety release committee. These are APHR-1 and APHR- 2 for the Telangana and Rayalaseema regions of Andhra pradesh, MGR-1 for the Tamilnadu state and KRH-1 for Karnataka state. Subsequently two more hybrids, viz., CHRH -3 and DRRH-1 were released recently.

Genetically Engineered Seeds

  • One of the major concerns of cultivating hybrid varieties is that farmers can not use seed from the harvest for their next crop and thus have to buy new seed for each crop. More-over, the cost of hybrid seed is 5-20 times more than that of seeds of inbred varieties. Possibilities for true -to- type multiplication of hybrid rice are being explored through two approaches.
  • Production of artificial seeds through somatic embryogenesis and
    Development of apomictic hybrid rice through wide hybridization and genetic engineering techniques.